What is the full form of ABG ?
Arterial blood gas
Arterial blood gas (ABG) in terms of medical it is a blood test to measure the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. Or Arterial blood gas (ABG) lab test measure dissolved gases in, and other properties like (ph, etc) of, arterial blood.
An ABG test requires that a little volume of blood be drawn from the outspread supply route with a syringe and a thin needle.An ABG test measures the blood-gas tension estimations of the blood vessel incomplete weight of oxygen, and the blood vessel fractional weight of carbon dioxide, and the blood’s pH.
The ABG test is a standout amongst the most well-known tests performed on patients in intensive care units. In different levels of care, beat oximetry in addition to transcutaneous carbon-dioxide estimation is a less obtrusive, elective technique for acquiring comparative data.
Why is ABG test done ?
The test is utilized to check the capacity of the patient’s lungs and how well they can move oxygen and evacuate carbon dioxide. below is the listed reason.
- Lung Failure
- Kidney Failure
- Uncontrolled diabetes
- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
- Drug Overdose
- Metabolic Disease
- Chemical Poisoning
Term involved in ABG.
Acid-Base Balance — a homeostatic mechanism in the human body that strives to maintain the optimal pH, so that body process may function optimally (normal pH of arterial blood = 7.35 – 7.45)
Buffer System — combination of body systems that work to keep optimal acid-base balance
Partial Pressure — the amount of pressure exerted by each gas in a mixture of gases
PO2 — partial pressure of oxygen
PCO2 — partial pressure of carbon dioxide
PAO2 — partial pressure of alveolar oxygen
PaO2 — partial pressure of arterial oxygen
PACO2 — partial pressure of alveolar carbon dioxide
PaCO2 — partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide
PvO2 — partial pressure of venous oxygen
PvCO2 — partial pressure of venous carbon dioxide
P50 — oxygen tension at 50% haemoglobin saturation
Respiratory Acidosis — the condition of lowered pH (acidosis) due to decreased respiratory rate (hypoventilation)
Respiratory Alkalosis — the condition of increased pH (alkalosis) due to increased respiratory rate (hyperventilation)
There are plastic and glass syringes utilized for blood gas tests. Most syringes come pre-bundled and contain a little measure of heparin, to counteract coagulation. Different syringes may be heparinised, by drawing up a little measure of fluid heparin and squirting it out again to evacuate air bubbles. Once the sample is acquired, care is taken to dispose of eliminate visible gas bubbles„ as these air pockets can break down into the example and cause off base outcomes.
Calculation & Report :
The machine utilized for examination suctions this blood from the syringe and measures the pH and the incomplete weights of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The bicarbonate fixation is additionally computed. These outcomes are typically accessible for elucidation inside five minutes.
Two strategies have been utilized as a part of pharmaceutical in the administration of blood gases of patients in hypothermia : pH-detail strategy and alpha-detail technique. Late examinations propose that the α-detail technique is prevalent.
pH-detail : The pH and other ABG comes about are estimated at the patient’s real temperature. The objective is to keep up a pH of 7.40 and the blood vessel carbon dioxide pressure (paCO2) at 5.3 kPa (40 mmHg) at the real patient temperature. It is important to add CO2 to the oxygenator to achieve this objective.
α-detail (alpha-detail): The pH and other ABG comes about are estimated at 37 °C, regardless of the patient’s genuine temperature. The objective is to keep up the blood vessel carbon dioxide pressure at 5.3 kPa (40mmHg) and the pH at 7.40 when estimated at +37 °C.
Both the pH-detail and alpha-detail procedures have hypothetical burdens. α-detail strategy is the technique for decision for ideal myocardial capacity. The pH-detail technique may bring about loss of autoregulation in the mind (coupling of the cerebral blood stream with the metabolic rate in the cerebrum). By expanding the cerebral blood stream past the metabolic necessities, the pH-detail technique may prompt cerebral microembolisation and intracranial hypertension